There are two sides to mastering "Damping" or the deliberate stopping of a string's vibrations.
Whenever the notation includes a staccato mark (a . on the note-head) or an explicit rest, we need to silence the string or strings necessary. There are 5 basic ways to achieve this...
Sometimes a "belt and braces" approach is the best - if the music has an extended staccato passage, for example, it's good to release the left hand and replace the right hand at the same time.
Note - when lifting the left hand finger, lift it just enough to let the string rise off the fret...
If you lift the finger right off the string, the open string will sound.
Conversely, if you don't lift it enough, the string will rattle on the fret till it's damped
Here's a simple example to bring together some of these techniques...
The staccato is best effected using methods 1 and 4 together.
The rest at the end of the bass note is best effected by method 4.
Damping is an important part of solo and ensemble technique, and a lot of it isn't indicated in the music.
Orchestral instruments (strings, brass & woodwind) have sustain and the player maintains each note throughout its life; the guitar is bit of a maverick - a note continues (but decays) with a life of its own. Stopped (fingered) notes cease when the finger is lifted, but open strings ring on.
Damping is needed when notes we don't want ring on through notes we do. The music won't tell us when, but our ears will! Let's look in more detail...
Here's the end of Brouwer's Un Dia de Noviembre, simplified just a little. It's all first position - no tricks!
When you play the As, the open E & B of the previous bar both ring on. (The G is killed by the A, of course). As they were played earlier, they're not as loud as the As, but they definitely ring on.
If you touch the E & B strings immediately before sounding the As, your ear will notice the gap or silence. But...
Touch the E & B strings immediately after sounding the As, your ear won't notice the discord for the brief time it exists.
There are other subtle ways that the guitar sings on... Sympathetic vibration means a string stopped at the fifth fret can make the open string of the same pitch burst into life, so be careful using 5th fret notes to replace open strings - they may bite back. What you thought was a way to control when the (fingered) note stops (instead of using an open string) may leave you with the open string ringing on just the same!
Just as an open string can vibrate in sympathy with another string of the same pitch, so a harmonic in an open string can be excited by another string of a much higher pitch. Try the following experiment - be sure your guitar is accurately tuned first.
If you have a nice guitar, it will bite back even harder. Try this scenario - you need to be quick ...
So to stop these spurious vibrations, we have to get'em all at the same time.
Most ensemble music is single line so it's not too hard to tidy up these ghost notes as you go along. Except...
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